lundi 19 mai 2008

FILMOGRAPHIE ALICE GUY




Nationality: French. Born: Born in Saint-Mandé, 1 July 1873. Also known as Alice Guy-Blaché and Alice Blaché. Education: Convent du Sacré-Coeur, Viry, France 1879–85; religious school at Ferney, and brief term in Paris; studied stenography. Family: Married Herbert Blaché-Bolton, 1907 (divorced 1922), two children. Career: La Gaumont, 1895; directed first film, La Fée aux choux, 1896 ; director of Gaumont film production, 1897–1907; using Gaumont "chronophone," made first sound films, 1900; moved to United States with husband, who was to supervise Gaumont subsidiary Solax, 1907; ceased independent production, lectured on filmmaking at Columbia University, 1917; assistant director to husband, 1919–20; returned to France, 1922; moved to United States, 1964. Awards: Legion of Honor, 1955. Died: In Mahwah, New Jersey, 24 March 1968.
Films as Director and Scriptwriter:

1896

La Fée aux choux (The Cabbage Fairy)
1897

Le Pêcheur dans le torrent; Leçon de danse; Baignade dans le torrent; Une nuit agitée; Coucher d'Yvette; Danse fleur de lotus; Ballet Libella; Le Planton du colonel; Idylle; L'Aveugle
1897/98

L'Arroseur arrosé; Au réfectoire; En classe; Les Cambrioleurs; Le Cocher de fiacre endormi; Idylleinterrompue; Chez le magnétiseur; Les Farces de Jocko; Scène d'escamotage; Déménagement à la cloche de bois; Je vous y prrrends!
1898/99

Leçons de boxe; La Vie du Christ (11 tableaux)
1899/1900

Le Tondeur de chiens; Le Déjeuner des enfants; Au cabaret; La Mauvaise Soupe; Un Lunch; Erreur judiciaire; L'Aveugle; La Bonne Absinthe; Danse serpentine par Mme Bob Walter; Mésaventure d'un charbonnier; Monnaie de lapin; Les Dangers de l'acoolisme; Le Tonnelier; Transformations; Le Chiffonier; Retour des champs; Chez le Maréchal-Ferrant; Marché à la volaille; Courte échelle; L'Angélus; Bataille d'oreillers; Bataille de boules de neige; Le marchand de coco
1900

Avenue de l'Opéra; La petite magicienne; Leçon de danse; Chez le photographe;
Sidney's Joujoux series (nine titles); Dans les coulisses; Au Bal de Flore series (three titles); Ballet Japonais series (three titles); Danse serpentine; Danse du pas des foulards par des almées; Danse de l'ivresse; Coucher d'une Parisienne; Les Fredaines de Pierrette series (four titles); Vénus et Adonis series (five titles); La Tarantelle; Danse des Saisons series (four titles); La Source; Danse du papillon; La Concierge; Danses series (three titles); Chirurgie fin de siècle; Une Rage de dents; Saut humidifié de M. Plick
1900/01

La Danse du ventre; Lavatory moderne; Lecture quotidienne
1900/07

(Gaumont "Phonoscènes", i.e. films with synchronized sound recorded on a wax cylinder): Carmen (twelve scenes); Mireille (five scenes); Les Dragons de Villars (nine scenes); Mignon (seven scenes); FaustPolin series (thirteen titles); Mayol series (thirteen titles); Dranem series of comic songs (twelve titles); Series recorded in Spain (eleven titles); La Prière by Gounod (twenty-two scenes);
1901

Folies Masquées series (three titles); Frivolité; Les Vagues; Danse basque; Hussards et grisettes; Charmant FrouFrou; Tel est pris qui croyait prendre
1902

La fiole enchantée; L'Equilibriste; En faction; La Première Gamelle; La Dent récalcitrante; Le Marchand de ballons; Les Chiens savants; Miss Lina Esbrard Danseuse Cosmopolite et Serpentine series (four titles); Les Clowns; Sage-femme de première classe; Quadrille réaliste; Une Scène en cabinet particulier vue à travers le trou de la serrure; Farces de cuisinière; Danse mauresque; Le Lion savant; Le Pommier; La Cour des miracles; La Gavotte; Trompé mais content; Fruits de saison; Pour secourer la salade
1903

Potage indigeste; Illusioniste renversant; Le Fiancé ensorcelé; Les Apaches pas veinards; Les Aventures d'un voyageur trop pressé; Ne bougeons plus; Comment monsieur prend son bain; La Main du professeur Hamilton ou Le Roi des dollars; Service précipité, La Poule fantaisiste; Modelage express; Faust et Méphistophélès; Lutteurs américains; La Valise enchantée; Compagnons de voyage encombrants; Cake-Walk de la pendule; Répétition dans un cirque; Jocko musicien; Les Braconniers; La Liqueur du couvent; Le Voleur sacrilège; Enlèvement en automobile et mariage précipite
1903/04

Secours aux naufragés; La Mouche; La Chasse au cambrioleur; Nos Bon Etudiants; Les Surprises del'affichage; Comme on fait son lit on se couche; Le Pompon malencontreux 1; Comment on disperse les foules; Les Enfants du miracle; Pierrot assassin; Les Deux Rivaux
1904

L'Assassinat du Courrier de Lyon; Vieilles Estampes series (four titles); Mauvais coeur puni; Magie noire; Rafle de chiens; Cambrioleur et agent; Scènes Directoire series (three titles); Duel tragique; L'Attaque d'un diligence; Culture intensive ou Le Vieux Mari; Cible humaine; Transformations; Le Jour du terme; Robert Macaire et Bertrand; Electrocutée; La Rêve du chasseur; Le Monolutteur; Les Petits Coupeurs de bois vert; Clown en sac; Triste Fin d'un vieux savant; Le Testament de Pierrot; Les Secrets de la prestidigitation dévoilés; La Faim . . . L' occasion . . . L'herbe tendre; Militaire et nourrice; La Première Cigarette; Départ pour les vacances; Tentative d'assassinat en chemin de fer; Paris la nuit ou Exploits d' apaches àMontamartre; Concours de bébés; Erreur de poivrot; Volée par les bohémiens (Rapt d' enfant par les romanichels); Les Bienfaits du cinématographe; P tissier et ramoneur; Gage d'amour; L'Assassinat de la rue du Temple (Le Crime de la rue du Temple); Le Réveil du jardinier; Les Cambrioleurs de Paris
1905

Réhabilitation; Douaniers et contrebandiers (La Guérité); Le Bébé embarrassant; Comment on dort á Paris!; Le Lorgnon accusateur; La Charité du prestidigitateur; Une Noce au lac Saint-Fargeau; Le Képi; Le Pantalon coupé; Le Plateau; Roméo pris au piége; Chien jouant á la balle; La Fantassin Guignard; La Statue; Villa dévalisée; Mort de Robert Macaire et Bertrand; Le Pavé; Les Maçons; La Esmeralda; Peintre et ivrogne; On est poivrot, mais on a du cœur; Au Poulailler!
1906

La Fée au printemps; La Vie du marin; La Chaussette; La Messe de minuit; Pauvre pompier; Le Régiment moderne; Les Druides; Voyage en Espagne series (fifteen titles); La Vie de Christ (25 tableaux); Conscience de prêtre; L'Honneur du Corse; J'ai un hanneton dans mon pantalon; Le Fils du garde-chasse; Course de taureaux à Nîmes; La Pègre de Paris; Lèvres closes (Sealed Lips); La Crinoline; La Voiture cellulaire; La Marâtre; Le Matelas alcoolique; A la recherche d'un appartement

1907

La vérité sur l'homme-singe (Ballet de Singe); Déménagement à la cloche de bois; Les Gendarmes; Sur la barricade (L'enfant de la barricade)
1910

A Child's Sacrifice (The Doll)
1911

Rose of the Circus; Across the Mexican Line; Eclipse; A Daughter of the Navajos; The Silent Signal; The Girl and the Bronco Buster; The Mascot of Troop "C"; An Enlisted Man's Honor; The Stampede; The Hold-Up; The Altered Message; His Sister's Sweetheart; His Better Self; A Revolutionary Romance; The Violin Maker of Nuremberg
1912

Mignon or The Child of Fate; A Terrible Lesson; His Lordship's White Feather; Falling Leaves; The Sewer; In the Year 2000; A Terrible Night; Mickey's Pal; Fra Diavolo; Hotel Honeymoon; The Equine Spy; Two Little Rangers; The Bloodstain; At the Phone; Flesh and Blood; The Paralytic; The Face at the Window
1913

The Beasts of the Jungle; Dick Whittington and His Cat; Kelly from the Emerald Isle; The Pit and the Pendulum; Western Love; Rogues of Paris; Blood and Water; Ben Bolt; The Shadows of the Moulin Rouge; The Eyes that Could Not Close; The Star of India; The Fortune Hunters
1914

Beneath the Czar; The Monster and the Girl; The Million Dollar Robbery; The Prisoner of the Harem; The Dream Woman; Hook and Hand; The Woman of Mystery; The Yellow Traffic; The Lure; Michael Strogoff; or The Courier to the Czar; The Tigress; The Cricket on the Hearth
1915

The Heart of a Painted Woman; Greater Love Hath No Man; The Vampire; My Madonna; Barbara Frietchie (co-d)
1916

What Will People Say?; The Girl with the Green Eyes; The Ocean Waif; House of Cards;
1917

The Empress; The Adventurer; A Man and the Woman; When You and I Were Young; Behind the Mask
1918

The Great Adventure
1920

Tarnished Reputation

Other Films:

1919

The Divorcee (asst d); The Brat (asst d)
1920

Stronger than Death (asst d)



Publications

By GUY: book—

Autobiographie d'une pionnière du cinéma 1873–1968, Paris, 1976; published as The Memoirs of Alice Guy-Blaché, edited by Anthony Slide, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1986.
By GUY: articles—

"Woman's Place in Photoplay Production," in The Moving Picture World (New York), 11 July 1914.

Letter in Films in Review (New York), May 1964.

"La Naissance du cinéma," in Image et Son (Paris), April 1974.

"Tournez, mesdames . . . ," in Ecran (Paris), August/September 1974.
On GUY: books—

Slide, Anthony, Early Women Directors, New York, 1977.

Elsaesser, Thomas, and Adam Barker, editors, Early Cinema: Space-Frame-Narrative, London, 1990.

Bachy, Victor, Alice Guy-Blaché, 1873–1968: La première femme cinéaste du monde, Perpignan, France, 1993.

On GUY: articles—

Levine, H.Z., "Madame Alice Blaché," in Photoplay (New York), March 1912.

Ford, Charles, "The First Female Producer," in Films in Review (New York), March 1964.

Smith, F.L., "Alice Guy-Blaché," in Films in Review (New York), April 1964.

Lacassin, Francis, "Out of Oblivion: Alice Guy-Blaché," in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1971.

Mitry, Jean, "A propos d'Alice Guy," in Ecran (Paris), July 1976.

Deslandes, J., "Sur Alice Guy: polémique," in Ecran (Paris), September 1976.

Peary, Gerald, "Czarina of the Silent Screen," in Velvet Light Trap (Madison, Wisconsin), Winter 1977.

Dixon, W.W., "Alice Guy: Forgotten Pioneer of the Narrative Cinema," in New Orleans Review, vol. 19, no. 3–4, 1992.

* * *

Alice Guy was the first person, or among the first, to make a fictional film. The story-film was quite possibly "invented" by her in 1896 when she made La Fée aux choux (The Cabbage Fairy). Certain historians claim that films of Louis Lumière and Georges Méliès preceded Guy's first film. The question remains debatable; Guy claimed precedence, devoting much effort in her lifetime to correcting recorded errors attributing her films to her male colleagues, and trying to secure her earned niche in film history. There is no debate regarding Guy's position as the world's first woman filmmaker.

Between 1896 and 1901 Guy made films averaging just seventy-five feet in length; from 1902 to 1907 she made numerous films of all types and lengths using acrobats, clowns, and opera singers as well as large casts in ambitious productions based on fairy and folk tales, Biblical themes, paintings, and myths. The "tricks" she used—running film in reverse and the use of double exposure—were learned through trial-and-error. In this period she also produced "talking pictures," in which Gaumont's Chronophone synchronized a projector with sound recorded on a wax cylinder.

One of these sound films, Mireille, was made by Guy in 1906. Herbert Blaché-Bolton joined the film crew of MireilleA Child's Sacrifice (in 1910), which centers on a girl's attempts to earn money for her family. In her Hotel Honeymoon of 1912, the moon comes alive to smile at human lovers, while in The Violin Maker of Nuremberg, two apprentices contend for the affections of their instructor's daughter. to learn directing. Alice Guy and Herbert were married in early 1907. The couple moved to the United States, where they eventually set up a studio in Flushing, New York. The Blachés then established the Solax Company, with a Manhattan office. In its four years of existence, Solax released 325 films, including westerns, military movies, thrillers, and historical romances. Mme. Blaché's first picture in the United States was

The Blachés built their own studio at Fort Lee, New Jersey, a facility with a daily printing capacity of 16,000 feet of positive film. For its inauguration in February 1912, Mme. Blaché presented an evening of Solax films at Weber's Theatre on Broadway. In that year she filmed two movies based on operas: Fra Diavolo and Mignon, each of which were three-reelers that included orchestral accompaniment. Her boldest enterprises were films using animals and autos.

Cataclysmic changes in the film industry finally forced the Blachés out of business. They rented, and later sold, their studio, then directed films for others. In 1922 the Blachés divorced. Herbert directed films until 1930, but Alice could not find film work and never made another film. She returned to France, but without prints of her films she had no evidence of her accomplishments. She could not find work in the French film industry either. She returned to the United States in 1927 to search the Library of Congress and other film depositories for her films, but her efforts in vain: only a half-dozen of her one-reelers survive. In 1953 she returned to Paris, where, at age seventy-eight, she was honored as the first woman filmmaker in the world. Her films, characterized by innovation and novelty, explored all genres and successfully appealed to both French and American audiences. Today she is finally being recognized as a unique pioneer of the film industry.


—Louise Heck-Rabi